Bariatric Surgery : Bariatric surgery, or weight loss surgery, includes a variety of procedures performed on people who are obese. Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach with an implanted medical device (Gastric Banding) or through removal of a portion of the stomach (Sleeve Gastrectomy or Biliopancreatic diversion with Duodenal Switch) or by resecting and re-routing the small intestines to a small stomach pouch (Gastric Bypass Surgery).
Gastric Banding : This is known as “Lap Band” surgery. A device, an adjustable gastric band, is placed around the top portion of the stomach, via laparoscopic surgery, in order to treat obesity. The band is designed to limit food intake. When you eat less food your body draws on its own fat reserves to get the energy it needs.
Gastric Sleeve Surgery : The sleeve gastrectomy is an operation in which the left side of the stomach is surgically removed. This results in a new stomach which is roughly the size and shape of a banana. Since this operation does not involve any "rerouting" or reconnecting the intestines, it is a simpler operation than the gastric bypass or the duodenal switch. Unlike the Lap Band procedure, the sleeve gastrectomy does not require the implantation of an artificial device inside the abdomen.
Gastric Bypass Surgery : The stomach is first divided into a small upper pouch and a much larger lower "remnant" pouch. The procedure then re-arranges the small intestine to allow both pouches to stay connected to it. Gastric Bypass leads to a marked reduction in the functional volume of the stomach. There is also an altered physiological and physical response to food.
Long-term studies show the procedures cause significant long-term loss of weight, recovery from diabetes, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, and a reduction in mortality of 23% from 40%.
The U.S. National Institutes of Health recommends bariatric surgery for obese people with a body mass index (BMI) of at least 40, and for people with BMI 35 and serious coexisting medical conditions such as diabetes. However, research is emerging that suggests bariatric surgery could be appropriate for those with a BMI of 35 to 40 with no comorbidities or a BMI of 30 to 35 with significant comorbidities.